Additional Scientific Article added today (HE)

The following article has been added to our list of scientific publications addressing HE:


Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy as a Treatable Adult-Onset Cerebellar Ataxia Mimicking Spinocerebellar Degeneration.

A Matsunaga, M Ikawa, A Fujii, Y Nakamoto, M Kuriyama, M Yoneda

Eur Neurol. 2013;69(1):14-20.


Categories: Uncategorized

February 27, 2013 – Total of 109 scientific articles now listed

February 27, 2013 Leave a comment

We are pleased to announce that as of today, our site provides  links to 109 scientific articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, also known as Steroid Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis.

To find links to the articles, click on the Case Reports tab above.

If you find a recent scientific article on HE/SREAT (published within the last 5 years) which does not appear in our list, please help us keep the list current by posting the identifying information about the article in a comment below, preferably including the title, authors, and publication.


Categories: Uncategorized

New Article

February 21, 2013 Leave a comment

We have added the following new article to our list of scientific publications. (Thanks to Miles Wright for providing this link)

Cognitive Impairments in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case-Control Study.

J Wang, J Zhang, L Xu, Y Shi, X Wu, O Guo

PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55758. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Full Text:

Categories: Uncategorized

New Facebook Page Created for Diagnosed HE/SREAT Patients

February 7, 2013 2 comments

On February 7, 2013, a new Facebook page was created for those who have a diagnosed case of HE/SREAT.  Unlike several other Facebook pages, which offer a variety of ways to learn about HE and communicate HE-related concerns with others, the new page – “For Those Diagnosed with HE/SREAT” – is a closed group consisting solely of those who have already been diagnosed.

The new Facebook page can be accessed at:


Other very helpful Facebook pages for those with HE, or who believe they or a loved one might have HE, include the following:  (this group is specific to HE patients and caregivers, and is a good resource for those who believe they *might* have HE and want to learn more) (this group is specific to HE patients and caregivers, and is a good resource for those who believe they *might* have HE and want to learn more)   (this group is for patients/survivors/caregivers of all types of encephalitis or encephalopathy, including HE) (this group is for parents of children who have HE)


The following Facebook page offers resources/links for those with HE, or who are trying to learn more about HE:


Categories: Uncategorized

Article re: IVIG used in comatose HE patient

February 7, 2013 3 comments

Today I added the following article to our database of Case Reports and Research. It was published late in 2010, and had previously escaped my attention.  This may be helpful for those looking for documented evidence for use of IVIG in HE :

Successful response to intravenous immunoglobulin as rescue therapy in a patient with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.

R. Cornejo, P Venegas, D Goñi, A Salas, and C Romero

BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Dec 29

Full Text:

Temporary Silence

January 22, 2013 1 comment

I apologize for the temporary lack of activity here.  I (hesilverlining) am in the midst of moving and I have had almost no time to get online. I hope to have things back up and running at full speed before the end of this month (January 2013).

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New Article added December 14, 2012

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

We added the following article to the Case Studies and Research section of the site today:

Paediatric autoimmune encephalopathies: clinical features,  laboratory investigations and outcomes in patients with or without antibodies to known central nervous system autoantigens

Yael Hacohen, Sukhvir Wright, Patrick Waters, Shakti Agrawal, Lucinda Carr, Helen Cross, Carlos De Sousa, Catherine DeVile, Penny Fallon, Rajat Gupta, Tammy Hedderly, Elaine Hughes, Tim Kerr, Karine Lascelles, Jean-Pierre Lin, Sunny Philip, Keith Pohl, Prab Prabahkar, Martin Smith, Ruth Williams, Antonia Clarke, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Angela Vincent, Ming J Lim

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 22.

Full text:

Although this article is not specific to HE, the research on which it reports concerns autoimmune encephalopathies, of which HE is a type.


Description of HE by Dr. Dalmau (formerly at U Penn, now at University of Barcelona, Spain)

December 6, 2012 3 comments

Dr. Dalmau, one of the leading international authorities on autoimmune encephalopathy, coauthored an article that appeared in Psychiatric Times in March 2010 titled “Psychiatric Presentation of Autoimmune Encephalopathies.” As readers of this site may know all too well, many HE patients are misdiagnosed with psychiatric disorders by treaters unfamiliar with autoimmune encephalopathy,  Here are excerpts from the article:

“While a biological basis for numerous psychiatric illnesses has become increasingly appreciated, few mechanistic hypotheses have gripped psychiatric researchers as strongly as an autoimmune basis for behavioral abnormalities. Perhaps the most extreme example of autoimmune phenomena that result in psychiatric changes can be found in antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis. In these syndromes, autoantibodies interfere either directly or indirectly with neuronal function, the outcome of which is striking cognitive and behavioral changes often accompanied by severe neurological symptoms…

Another group of autoimmune-mediated disorders results in limbic encephalitis but is not usually associated with an underlying neoplasm….

Hashimoto encephalopathy is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis characterized by high levels of antithyroid antibodies in serum, although usually without clinically relevant thyroid dysfunction. Patients are women in their 40s to 50s who present with waxing and waning cognitive impairment, such as memory dysfunction and speech abnormalities. Psychiatric disturbances are extremely frequent as well and include disorganized behavior with poor self-care, psychosis (often with visual hallucinations), changes in mood or personality, and sleep dysfunction.

Seizures are often associated with Hashimoto encephalopathy, but unique to this syndrome are fluctuating stroke-like episodes that span multiple different vascular territories. Other neurological symptoms such as myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and headache have been reported in one-third of cases.

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies assist in the diagnosis of Hashimoto encephalopathy. This finding is reported in nearly all cases. However, a well-defined pathogenic role for these antibodies has not been established, and the antibodies are highly prevalent in the general population, which complicates diagnosis based on antibodies alone. Results of brain MRI scans are normal 50% of the time, and changes are nonspecific, even when abnormal.

Finally, another critical feature that supports the diagnosis of this disorder is the response to treatment: Hashimoto encephalopathy is almost uniformly responsive to a prolonged course of high-dose corticosteroids. On average, treatment continues 4 to 6 weeks before clinical recovery starts and corticosteroid taper is initiated.Multiple studies have described relapse of symptoms with early cessation of therapy, which highlights the need to continue therapy beyond simply the appearance of improvement. …

An autoimmunological basis for psychiatric disturbances such as schizophrenia and depression has been theorized for decades.55,56 The characterization of multiple encephalopathies as autoimmune in nature provides a foothold for a greater under-standing of how antibody-mediated syndromes can manifest with behavioral changes. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis, and encephalitis that involves glutamate receptors represent a heterogeneous group of disorders with common pathogenic mechanisms.

The diverse cognitive and behavioral symptoms in these disorders emphasize the need for psychiatrists to consider such syndromes in their differential diagnosis for patients with atypical behavioral changes. Moreover, given the potential for a significant role in recognition of these neurologically complex disorders, psychiatrists should become familiar with diagnostic criteria and appropriate therapeutic options.”

Additional Pediatric Case Article

December 6, 2012 Leave a comment

The following pediatric HE article is being added to our list today. The article is co-authored by Dr. Dalmau, one of the leading authorities in the world on autoimmune encephalopathy.

Autoimmune encephalitis in children.

J Child Neurol. 2012 Nov;27(11):1460-9. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

T Armangue, M Petit-Pedrol, J Dalmau


New Scientific Articles added December 6, 2012

December 6, 2012 Leave a comment

The following three articles – one of which is specific to pediatric cases – were added today to the list of case studies which may be accessed above.

Recurrent Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, showing spontaneous remission: a case report.

L Li, Zheng FP, Wang G, Li H.

Intern Med. 2011;50(12):1309-12. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Abstract / Full Text Available Free:


Non-convulsive status epilepticus of frontal origin as the first manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.

G Monti, M Pugnaghi, A Ariatti, L Mirandola, G Giovannini, S Scacchetti, P Nichelli, S Meletti

Epileptic Disord. 2011 Sep;13(3):253-8.

Abstract / Full Text Available Free:



Undetected Hashimoto encephalopathy–a diagnostic challenge in child psychiatry and child neurology.

R Voll

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2010 Jan;38(1):21-7. (German)