Pediatric Cases

Note: more recent scientific articles about pediatric HE can be found by clicking HERE.

The following cases and articles specifically address pediatric HE patients.  Links are provided to abstracts that can be read online, and to full texts online where available. Please note that many of the case reports and articles on the main “Case Reports” page are also applicable to pediatric patients. The following articles are presented separately to allow quick identification of specific observations in pediatric cases.

Paediatric autoimmune encephalopathies: clinical features,  laboratory investigations and outcomes in patients with or without antibodies to known centralnervous system autoantigens (this article is not limited to HE but we believe it is important enough to be included here)

Yael Hacohen, Sukhvir Wright, Patrick Waters, Shakti Agrawal, Lucinda Carr, Helen Cross, Carlos De Sousa, Catherine DeVile, Penny Fallon, Rajat Gupta, Tammy Hedderly, Elaine Hughes, Tim Kerr, Karine Lascelles, Jean-Pierre Lin, Sunny Philip, Keith Pohl, Prab Prabahkar, Martin Smith, Ruth Williams, Antonia Clarke, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Angela Vincent, Ming J Lim

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 22.

Full text:


Autoimmune encephalitis in children. (this article is not specific to HE but we believe it is important enough to be included here)

J Child Neurol. 2012 Nov;27(11):1460-9. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

T Armangue, M Petit-Pedrol, J Dalmau



Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with hashimoto thyroiditis.

Pediatric Radiol.  July 2012  – Volume  42, Issue 7, pp. 891-3.

P. Zimmermann, E. Stranzinger



Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting as progressive myoclonus epilepsy syndrome

R Arya, V Anand, M Chansoria.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]



Hashimoto encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy in an Italian adolescent

V Salpietro, V Granata, A Polizzi, K Mankad, S Briuglia, R Gallizzi, G Tortorella, M Ruggieri

The Child Journal of Pediatrics, Vol 1, No. 2, June 2012: 9

Full text:


A case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with seizures and psychosis.

Korean Journal of Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;55(3):111-3.

Lee MJ, Lee HS, Hwang JS, Jung DE.

Full Text:


Hashimoto encephalopathy causing drug-resistant status epilepticus treated with plasmapheresis.

Pediatr Neurol. 2012 Feb;46(2):132-5.

O Bektas, A Yılmaz, T Kendirli, Z Sıklar, G Deda



Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in children and adolescents.

I. Erol, S. Saygi, F. Alehan

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Dec;45(6):420-2.



Central nervous system vasculitis with positive antithyroid antibodies in an adolescent boy.

Sarah L Tsai, Evan C Lewis, Erick Sell, Sharon Whiting

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Sep ;45 (3):189-92



Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and autoimmune thyroiditis in a young boy.

SD Shah, H Murali

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Aug;45(2):132-4.



A Methodology for Assessing Treatment Response in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case Study Demonstrating Repeated Computerized Neuropsychological Testing

Brian L. Brooks, PhD, Karen M. Barlow, MB, ChB, MRCPCH

Journal of Child Neurology June 2011 vol. 26 no. 6 786-791



Tremor and Myoclonus Heralding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

K. Gücüyener , A. Serdaroğlu, A. Bideci, Y. Yazman, A.S. Soysal, P. Cinaz

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, April 2011, Vol. 13, Issue 8, 1137-1141 (originally published 2000; updated)

First page:


More precise definition of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease

Itai Berger

Acta Paedriactica: Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 5–6, January 2011 (Reader’s Forum)

Full Text:


Paediatric Hashimoto encephalopathy, refractory epilepsy and immunoglobulin treatment – unusual case report and review of the literature

Berger I, Castiel Y, Dor T.

Acta Paediatr. 2010 Dec,  99(12):1903-5.



Clinical Reasoning: A 9-year-old girl with seizures and encephalopathy

Thy P. Nguyen and Lisa M. El-Hakam

Neurology. 2010 June 1; 74(22): e97–e100

Full Text:


Hashimoto encephalopathy in a preschool girl.

M. Castro-Gago, C. Gómez-Lado, M. Maneiro-Freire, J. Eirís-Puñal, M. Bravo-Mata

Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Feb;42(2):143-6.



Undetected Hashimoto encephalopathy–a diagnostic challenge in child psychiatry and child neurology.

R Voll

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2010 Jan;38(1):21-7. (German)



Hashimoto Encephalopathy: Rare Cause of Stroke in Young Patient

Bonmann, Eckhard MD; Prumbaum, Manfred MD; Stippich, Christoph MD; Ringleb, Peter MD; Sliwka, Ulrich MD

The Neurologist: November 2009 – Volume 15 – Issue 6 – pp 342-344



Hashimoto encephalopathy: A treatable cause of encephalopathy in children – further report of two cases

O. Akuma , Peta Akuma, M. Sharples, Philip E. Jardine

Journal Journal of Pediatric Neurology -Volume 6, Number 1 / 2008



Unexplained seizures, confusion or hallucinations: think Hashimoto encephalopathy

Jorien Alink, Tjalling W. De Vries

Acta Paediatrica, Volume 97, Issue 4, pages 451–453, April 2008



Seizures, psychosis and coma: severe course of hashimoto encephalopathy in a six-year-old girl.

Neuropediatrics. 2007 Aug;38(4):197-9.

F. Hoffmann, K. Reiter, G. Kluger, H. Holthausen, H.P. Schwarz, I. Borggraefe, W Bonfig



Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in an adolescent boy.                

M. Ray, K. Kothur, SK Padhy, P. Saran

Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2007 May;74(5):492-4.

Full Text:


Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in a ten-year-old girl

Bülent Kara, Demet Demirkol-Soysal, Sema Kabataþ-Eryýlmaz, Metin Karaböcüoðlu, Feyza Darendeliler, Mine Çalýþkan

The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2007; 49: 215-217

Full Text:


Hashimoto Encephalopathy Responding to Risperidone

Zia Bismilla, Erick Sell, Elizabeth Donner

Journal of Child Neurology July 2007 vol. 22 no. 7 855-857



Encephalopathy Associated With Hashimoto Thyroiditis: Pediatric Perspective

Nathan Watemberg, MD; Dalia Greenstein, MD; Arie Levine, MD

J Child Neurol. January 2006;  Vol. 21 no. 1 1-5

Full Text:



  1. Elmer Graham
    March 19, 2013 at 6:26 am

    My 6yr old was diagnosed with He, she spent 20 days at Arkansas Children’s Hospital until she passed away, but I had a Pathology done, and if you are a doctor that interested I could arrange for you to get those medical records, if it will help , and you would look at them and give me your opinion.

    • March 20, 2013 at 3:29 pm

      I am terribly sorry about the death of your daughter. My deepest condolences go out to you and your family. I am not a doctor. Rather, I am a HE patient myself, along with the woman who first started this site. (“scientistseeking”). May I ask whether your daughter was suffering from status epilepticus? It seems that many of the children with HE who pass away do so because they are suffering from seizures that cannot be stopped. If you are not already aware of it, you may wish to look at the Facebook group for parents of children with HE. Some of them have, like you, lost children to HE. It might help to be able to communicate with others who have some understanding of what you have been through, and continue to go through. Again, my sincerest condolences. Here is a link to the Children with HE page:

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